Adult Stem Cells

Balyasnikova, I. V., Prasol, M. S., Ferguson, S. D., Han, Y., Ahmed, A. U., Gutova, M., … & Aboody, K. S. (2013). Intranasal delivery of mesenchymal stem cells significantly extends survival of irradiated mice with experimental brain tumors. Molecular Therapy.

Cox, C. S., Hetz, R. A., Liao, G. P., Aertker, B. M., Ewing‐Cobbs, L., Juranek, J., … & Dash, P. K. (2016). Treatment of severe adult traumatic brain injury using bone marrow mononuclear cells. Stem Cells.

Danielyan, L., Schäfer, R., von Ameln-Mayerhofer, A., Buadze, M., Geisler, J., Klopfer, T., … & Buniatian, G. H. (2009). Intranasal delivery of cells to the brain. European journal of cell biology88(6), 315-324.

Danielyan, L., Beer-Hammer, S., Stolzing, A., Schäfer, R., Siegel, G., Fabian, C., … & Novakovic, A. (2014). Intranasal delivery of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, macrophages, and microglia to the brain in mouse models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Cell transplantation,23(Supplement 1), S123-S139.

Danielyan, L., Schäfer, R., von Ameln-Mayerhofer, A., Bernhard, F., Verleysdonk, S., Buadze, M., … & Koehle, C. (2011). Therapeutic efficacy of intranasally delivered mesenchymal stem cells in a rat model of Parkinson disease. Rejuvenation research14(1), 3-16.

Fransson, M., Piras, E., Burman, J., Nilsson, B., Essand, M., Lu, B., … & Loskog, A. S. (2012). CAR/FoxP3-engineered T regulatory cells target the CNS and suppress EAE upon intranasal delivery. Journal of neuroinflammation9(1), 112.

Gargiulo, C., Pham, V. H., Nguyen, K. C. D., Trieu, V. L. H., & Duy, T. H. (2016). Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cells Increase the Telomere Length in Patient: A Case Report of 13 PatientsJ Stem Cell Res Ther6(352), 2.

Hanson, L. R., & Frey, W. H. (2008). Intranasal delivery bypasses the blood-brain barrier to target therapeutic agents to the central nervous system and treat neurodegenerative disease. BMC neuroscience9(Suppl 3), S5.

Johnson, V. E., Stewart, W., & Smith, D. H. (2010). Traumatic brain injury and amyloid-β pathology: a link to Alzheimer’s disease? Nature Reviews. Neuroscience11(5), 361–370.

Liao, G. P., Harting, M. T., Hetz, R. A., Walker, P. A., Shah, S. K., Corkins, C. J., … & Tsao, K. (2015). Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells reduce therapeutic intensity for severe traumatic brain injury in childrenPediatric critical care medicine: a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies16(3), 245.

O’Neill, D. W., Jiang, Y., Leary, E., Yavanian, G., Eminli, S., & Marasco, W. A. (2012). A Lin-CD45-CD34+ Population of Extracellular Vesicles in Human Blood That Mimics Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells (VSELs) by Flow Cytometry.

Ratajczak, M. Z., Zuba-Surma, E. K., Wysoczynski, M., Ratajczak, J., & Kucia, M. (2008). Very small embryonic-like stem cells: characterization, developmental origin, and biological significance. Experimental hematology36(6), 742-751.

Roggendorf, W., Opitz, H., & Schuppan, D. (1988). Altered expression of collagen type VI in brain vessels of patients with chronic hypertensionActa Neuropathologica Acta Neuropathol, 77(1), 55-60.

Sovalat, H., Scrofani, M., Eidenschenk, A., & Hénon, P. (2015). Human very small embryonic-like stem cells are present in normal peripheral blood of young, middle-aged, and aged subjects. Stem cells international2016.

University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. (2018, October 17). Stem cell proliferation is controlled directly by nervous system, scientists find. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 2, 2018 from
van Velthoven, C. T., Kavelaars, A., van Bel, F., & Heijnen, C. J. (2010). Nasal administration of stem cells: a promising novel route to treat neonatal ischemic brain damagePediatric research68, 419-422.

Wei, N., Yu, S. P., Gu, X., Taylor, T. M., Song, D., Liu, X. F., & Wei, L. (2013). Delayed intranasal delivery of hypoxic-preconditioned bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhanced cell homing and therapeutic benefits after ischemic stroke in mice. Cell transplantation,22(6), 977-991.

William, H. F. I., Danielyan, L., & Gleiter, C. H. (2016). U.S. Patent No. 9,445,991. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Zhang, J., Jiang, R., Liu, L., Watkins, T., Zhang, F., & Dong, J. (2012). Traumatic brain injury-associated coagulopathy. Journal of Neurotrauma, 29(17), 2597-2605. doi: 10.1089/neu.2012.2348

Platelet Rich Plasma

Akeda, K., Yamada, J., Linn, E. T., Sudo, A., & Masuda, K. (2019). Platelet-rich plasma in the management of chronic low back pain: a critical review. Journal of pain research12, 753–767. doi:10.2147/JPR.S153085

Akeda, K., Imanishi, T., Ohishi, K., Masuda, K., Uchida, A., Sakakibara; T., Kasai, Y., Sudo, A. (2012).Intradiscal Injection of Autologous Platelet-Rich-Plasma for the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Degeneration. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Spinal Surgery and Medical Engineering.

Alderman, D. (2015). The New Age of ProlotherapyPractical Pain Management. 

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2014). Platelet-rich plasma treatment more effective than cortisone for severe hip bursitis. ScienceDaily. Retrieved February 24, 2016 from

Andrade MG, de Freitas Brandão CJ, Sá CN, de Bittencourt TC, Sadigursky M (2008) Evaluation of factors that can modify platelet-rich plasma properties. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 105(1):e5–e12

Anitua E, Aguirre JJ, Algorta J et al (2008) Effectiveness of autologous preparation rich in growth factors for the treatment of chronic cutaneous ulcers. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl. Biomater 84(2):415–421

Anitua E, Sánchez M, Orive G et al (2007) The potential impact of the preparation rich in growth factors (PRGF) in different medical fields. Biomaterials 28(31):4551–4560

Bhatia, R., & Chopra, G. (2016). Efficacy of Platelet Rich Plasma via Lumbar Epidural Route in Chronic Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc Patients-A Pilot Study. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR10(9), UC05–UC07. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2016/21863.8482

Bielecki T, Gazdzik TS, Szczepanski T (2008) Benefit of percutaneous injection of autologous platelet-leukocyte-rich gel in patients with delayed union and nonunion. Eur Surg Res

Blanke, F., Vavken, P., Haenle, M., von Wehren, L., Pagenstert, G., & Majewski, M. (2015). Percutaneous injections of Platelet rich plasma for treatment of intrasubstance meniscal lesions. Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal5(3), 162–166. doi:10.11138/mltj/2015.5.3.162

Bonakdar, R. A. & Sukiennik, A. (2016). Integrative Pain Management. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Boyette, A. & Shanahan, G. (n.d.). Usage of Platelet Rich Plasma in Foot and Ankle PathologyPodiatry Institute.

Cameron, J. A., (2017). Autologous platelet rich plasma for neck and lower back pain secondary to spinal disc herniation: midterm results. ARCHIVOS DE MEDICINA3(2), 10.

Darrow, M., Shaw, B., Nicholas, S., Li, X., & Boeger, G. (2019). Treatment of unresolved lower back pain with platelet-rich plasma injections. Cogent Medicine6(1), 1-10.

DeNoon, D. (2010). Platelet-Rich Plasma Helps Tennis Elbow. Fitness & Exercise. Retrieved from WebMD February 24, 2016.

de Vos, R. J., Weir, A., van Schie, H. T. M., Bierma-Zeinstra, S. M. A., Verhaar, J. A. N., Weinans, H., & Tol, J. L. (2010). Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(2), 144-149.

Dragoo, J. L., Braun, H. J., Durham, J. L., Ridley, B. A., Odegaard, J. I., Luong, R., & Arnoczky, S. P. (2012). Comparison of the acute inflammatory response of two commercial platelet-rich plasma systems in healthy rabbit tendons. The American journal of sports medicine40(6), 1274-1281.

El-Sharkawy H, Kantarci A, Deady J et al (2007) Platelet-rich plasma: growth factors and pro and anti-inflammatory properties. J Periodontol 78(4):661–669

Engebretsen L, Steffen K, Alsousou J et al (2010) IOC consensus paper on the use of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine. Br J Sports Med 44:1072–1081

Everts PA, Devilee RJJ, Brown Mahoney C et al (2008) Exogenous application of plateletleukocyte gel during open subacromial decompression contributes to improved patient
outcome. A prospective randomized double-blind study. Eur Surg Res 40(2):203–210

Filardo, G., Kon, E., Buda, R., Timoncini, A., Di Martino, A., Cenacchi, A., … & Marcacci, M. (2011). Platelet-rich plasma intra-articular knee injections for the treatment of degenerative cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy19(4), 528-535.

Filardo, G., Kon, E., Della Villa, S., Vincentelli, F., Fornasari, P. M., & Marcacci, M.(2010). Use of platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of refractory jumper’s knee. International Orthopaedics (SICOT), 34, 909–915.

Freitag, J. B., & Barnard, A. (2013). To evaluate the effect of combining photo-activation therapy with platelet-rich plasma injections for the novel treatment of osteoarthritisBMJ case reports2013, bcr2012007463.

Gaweda, K., Tarczynska, M., & Krzyzanowski, W. (2010). Treatment of Achilles Tendinopathy with Platelet-Rich Plasma. International Journal of Sports Medicine.

Guidolin DD, Ronchetti IP, Lini E et al (2001) Morphological analysis of articular cartilage biopsies from a randomized, clinical study comparing the effects of 500-730 kDa sodium
hyaluronate (Hyalgan) and methylprednisolone acetate on primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 9(4):371–381

Hauser, R. A., Phillips, H. J., & Maddela, H. (2010). Platelet rich plasma Prolotherapy as first-line treatment for meniscal pathology. Pract Pain Manag10(6), 53-64.

Hauser, R. (2015). Platelet Rich Plasma Therapy for Knee Osteoarthritis. Retrieved from

Hunt, K., Bergeson, A., Coffin, C., Randall, R. (2009). Percutaneous curettage and bone grafting for humeral simple bone cysts. Orthopedics, 32(2), 89.

Ishida, K., Kuroda, R., Miwa, M., Tabata, Y., Hokugo, A., Kawamoto, T., … & Kurosaka, M. (2007). The regenerative effects of platelet-rich plasma on meniscal cells in vitro and its in vivo application with biodegradable gelatin hydrogel. Tissue engineering13(5), 1103-1112.

Italiano JE Jr, Richardson JL, Patel-Hett S et al (2008) Angiogenesis is regulated by a novel mechanism: pro- and antiangiogenic proteins are organized into separate platelet alpha granules and differentially released. Blood 111(3):1227–1233

Jacobson M, Fufa D, Abreu EL et al (2008) Platelets, but not erythrocytes, significantly affect cytokine release and scaffold contraction in a provisional scaffold model. Wound Rep Reg

Kaminski, R., Maksymowicz-Wleklik, M., Kulinski, K., Kozar-Kaminska, K., Dabrowska-Thing, A., & Pomianowski, S. (2019). Short-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Trephination with a Platelet Rich Plasma Intrameniscal Injection for the Repair of Degenerative Meniscal Lesions. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study. International journal of molecular sciences20(4), 856.

Kaminski, R., Kulinski, K., Kozar-Kaminska, K., Wielgus, M., Langner, M., Wasko, M. K., … & Pomianowski, S. (2018). A prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study evaluating meniscal healing, clinical outcomes, and safety in patients undergoing meniscal repair of unstable, complete vertical meniscal tears (bucket handle) augmented with platelet-rich plasma. BioMed research international2018.

Kang SW, Bada LP, Kang CS et al (2008) Articular cartilage regeneration with microfracture and hyaluronic acid. Biotechnol Lett 30(3):435–439

Kon, E., Buda, R., Filardo, G., Di Martino, A., Timoncini, A., Cenacchi, A., … & Marcacci, M. (2010). Platelet-rich plasma: intra-articular knee injections produced favorable results on degenerative cartilage lesions. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy18(4), 472-479.

Kon, E., Filardo, G., Delcogliano, M., Lo Presti, M., Russo, A., Bondi, A., Di Martino, A., Cenacchi, A., Fornasari, P. M., & Marcacci, A., (2008). Platelet-rich plasma: New clinical application A pilot study for treatment of jumper’s kneeInternational Orthopaedics (SICOT) International Orthopaedics, 34(6), 909-915.

Lana, J. F. S. D., Santana, M. H. A., Belangero, W. D., & Luzo, A. (2014). Platelet-Rich Plasma Regenerative Medicine: Sports Medicine, Orthopedic, and Recovery of Musculoskeletal Injuries Heidelberg: Springer.

Lei H, Gui L, Xiao R (2009) The effect of anticoagulants on the quality and biological efficacy of platelet-rich plasma. Clin Biochem 42(13–14):1452–1460

Lopez-Vidriero E, Goulding KA, Simon DA et al (2010) The use of platelet-rich plasma in arthroscopy and sports medicine: optimizing the healing environment. Arthroscopy

Marx, R. E. (2004). Platelet-rich plasma: evidence to support its use. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery62(4), 489-496.

Mei-Dan, O., Carmont, M. R. (2011). The role of platelet-rich plasma in rotator cuff repairSports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review,19(3), 244-250.

Mishra, A., Harmon, K., Woodall, J., & Vieira, A. (2012). Sports medicine applications of platelet rich plasma. Current pharmaceutical biotechnology13(7), 1185-1195.

Mishra A, Pavelko T (2006) Treatment of chronic elbow tendinosis with buffered platelet-rich plasma. Am J Sports Med 34(11):1774–1778

Mohammed, S., & Yu, J. (2018). Platelet-rich plasma injections: an emerging therapy for chronic discogenic low back pain. Journal of spine surgery (Hong Kong)4(1), 115–122. doi:10.21037/jss.2018.03.04

New York. (2013). Platelet-rich Plasma (PRP) Treatment Shows Potential for Knee Osteoarthritis. Hospital for Special Surgery.

Petrella RJ, Cogliano A, Decaria J et al (2010) Management of Tennis Elbow with sodium hyaluronate periarticular injections. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol 2:4

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Therapy. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11, 2016, from

Raman R, Dutta A, Day N et al (2008) Efficacy of Hylan G-F 20 and Sodium Hyaluronate in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee – A prospective randomized clinical trial. Knee

Randelli, P., Arrigoni, P, Ragone, V., Aliprandi, A., Cabitza, P. (2011). Platelet rich plasma in arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: a prospective RCT study, 2-year follow-up. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, 20(4), 518-528.

Sánchez, M., Anitua, E., Azofra, J., Aguirre, J. J., Andia, I., (2008). Intra-articular injection of an autologous preparation rich in growth factors for the treatment of knee OA: a retrospective cohort study. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology.

Sanchez M, Anitua E, Azofra J et al (2007) Comparison of surgically repaired Achilles tendon tears using platelet-rich fibrin matrices. Am J Sports Med 35(2):245–251

Schnabel LV, Mohammed HO, Miller BJ et al (2007) Platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances anabolic gene expression patterns in flexor digitorum superficialis tendons. J Orthop Res

Shen, L., Yuan, T., Chen, S., Xie, X., & Zhang, C. (2017). The temporal effect of platelet-rich plasma on pain and physical function in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsJournal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research12, 16.

Scott A, Khan KM, Roberts CR, Cook JL, Duronio V (2004) ‘‘What do we mean by the term ‘‘inflammation’’? A contemporary basic science update for sports medicine. Br J Sports Med 38(3):372–380.

Toumi H, Best TM (2003) The inflammatory response: friend or enemy for muscle injury? Br J Sports Med 37(4):284–286.

Weibrich G, Kleis WK, Hitzler WE et al (2005) Comparison of the platelet concentrate collection system with the plasma-rich-in-growth-factors kit to produce platelet-rich plasma: a technical report. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 20(1):118–123.

Weibrich G, Kleis WK, Hafner G et al (2003b) Comparison of platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor levels in point-of-care platelet-enriched plasma, prepared using a modified Curasan kit, with preparations received from a local blood bank. Clin Oral Implants Res 14(3):357–362


Alderman, D. (2015). The New Age of ProlotherapyPractical Pain Management. 

Andreula, C. F., Simonetti, L., de Santis, F., Agati, R., Ricci, R., & Leonardi, M. (2003). Minimally Invasive Oxygen-Ozone Therapy for Lumbar Disk HerniationAJNR American Journal Neuroradiology, 24, 996-1000.

Applied Ozone Systems. Medical ozone oxygen therapy references. Retrieved from

Bocci, V. (1999). Biological and clinical effects of ozone. Has ozone therapy a future in medicine? British Journal of Biomedical Science. 56(4), 270-279.

Bocci, V. (2011). OZONE A new medical drug. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.

Boyles, S. (2009). Ozone may help herniated disc pain. WebMD. Retrieved from

D’Erme M, Scarchilli A, Artale A, Pasquali Lasagni, M. (1998). Ozone therapy in lumbar sciatic pain. Raidol Med. 95, 1-2.

Elvis, A. M., & Ekta, J. S. (2011). Ozone therapy: A clinical reviewJournal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine2(1), 66–70.

Hashemi M, et al. (2015). The effects of prolotherapy aith hypertonic dextrose versus prolozone (intraarticular ozone) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Anesth Pain Med. 5(5). Retrieved from

Heckel, A. (n.d.). Prolotherapy claims to treat sprains and pains without surgery or pills. Retrieved March 02, 2016, from

Ongley, M., Dorman, T., Klein, R., Eek, B., & Hubert, L. (1987). A new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. The Lancet330(8551), 143-146.

Phend, C. (2009). Ozone shots as effective as surgery for back pain. Medpage Today. Retrieved from

Prolotherapy for chronic ankle pain. (n.d.). Retrieved March 11, 2016, from

Rabago, D., Slattengren, A., & Zgierska, A. (2010). Prolotherapy in Primary Care PracticeProlotherapy in Primary Care Practice. National Institute of Health. 37(1), 65-80.

Re, L., Mawsouf, M., Menendez, S., Leon, O., Sanchez, G., Hernandez., F. (2008). Ozone therapy: Clinical and basic evidence of its therapeutic potentialArchives of Medical Research. 39(1), 17-26.

Sagai, M., & Bocci, V. (2011). Mechanisms of Action Involved in Ozone Therapy: Is healing induced via a mild oxidative stress? Medical Gas Research1, 29.

Work, H. I., & FAQs, P. Prolotherapy for Back Pain Treatment.

Yildirim, C., Akmaz, I., Sahin, O., & Keklikci, K. (2011). Simple calcaneal bone cysts. J Bone Joint Surg Br, 93-B(12), 1626-1631.


Andreula, C. F., Simonetti, L., de Santis, F., Agati, R., Ricci, R., & Leonardi, M. (2003). Minimally Invasive Oxygen-Ozone Therapy for Lumbar Disk HerniationAJNR American Journal Neuroradiology, 24, 996-1000.

Bocci, V., Zanardi, I., & Travagli, V. (2011). Oxygen/ozone as a medical gas mixture. A critical evaluation of the various methods clarifies positive and negative aspects.Medical gas research1(1), 1-9.

Boyles, S. (2009). Ozone may help herniated disc pain. WebMD. Retrieved from

D’Erme M, Scarchilli A, Artale A, Pasquali Lasagni, M. (1998). Ozone therapy in lumbar sciatic pain. Raidol Med. 95, 1-2.

Hashemi M, et al. (2015). The effects of prolotherapy aith hypertonic dextrose versus prolozone (intraarticular ozone) in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Anesth Pain Med. 5(5). Retrieved from

Phend, C. (2009). Ozone shots as fffective as surgery for back pain. Medpage Today. Retrieved from

Osteopathic Manipulation

Andersson, G., Lucente, T., Davis, A., Kappler, R., Lipton, J., & Leurgans, S. (1999). A Comparison of Osteopathic Spinal Manipulation with Standard Care for Patients with Low Back PainThe New England Journal of Medicine, 341, 1426-1431.

Bonakdar, R. A. & Sukiennik, A. (2016). Integrative Pain Management. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Licciardone, J. C. (2008). The epidemiology and medical management of low back pain during ambulatory medical care visits in the United States.Osteopathic Medicine and Primary Care2(1), 1-17.

Ongley, M., Dorman, T., Klein, R., Eek, B., & Hubert, L. (1987). A new approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain. The Lancet330(8551), 143-146.